In its pure form citric acid is a white crystalline solid and is sour to taste like all food acids. A tricarboxylic acid that is propane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid bearing a hydroxy substituent at position 2. Citric acid along with its derivatives are also very useful in the pharmaceutical industry because of its antioxidant properties. It is used to maintain the stability of active ingredients in some medicines. We are based in Cheshire, England and have been established since 1977. This acid is usually found in citrus fruits like lemons, oranges etc. Citric acid is neither a vitamin nor a mineral. However, in powder form, this substance has a slight fire hazard risk. It is considered as a tribasic acid. Calculate the empirical formula of citric acid. Citric Acid contains 6 Carbon atoms, 8 Hydrogen atoms and 7 Oxygen atoms. How Does Sodium Thiosulphate Cure Cyanide Poisoning? This is the main difference between anhydrous and monohydrate citric acid. Approximately two million tons of citric acid are mass-produced annually. Formula and structure: The citric acid chemical formula is C 6 H 8 O 7 and its extended formula is CH 2 COOH-C(OH)COOH-CH 2 COOH. Citric acid is classified as an alpha-hydroxy acid with a three-carbon skeleton. It can occur in two forms – monohydrate or water-free (anhydrous). We strongly recommend against this practice – Organic foulants lose their anionic charge if a low pH cleaning is performed first, and can end up being compacted into … This makes it a very useful component in a. . We do not recommend using any chemical without first consulting the Material Safety Data Sheet which can be obtained from the manufacturer and following the safety advice and precautions on the product label. In biochemistry, it is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle, which occurs in the metabolism of all aerobic organism s. More than two million tons of citric acid are manufactured every year. Here, we’ll... read more, Silver nitrate (AgNO3) is an inorganic and caustic chemical compound that has a variety of different uses. What Are The Uses Of Tetrahydrofuran (THF)? 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid, hydrate. For each of the three steps, the disassociation constant also varies. 11b – 13 Aston Fields Road, Whitehouse Industrial Estate, Runcorn, Cheshire, WA7 3DL. Recognised... read more, Sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) is considered one of the most important medicines in the health system because of its ability... read more, Absolute Ethanol Acetic Acid (CH3COOH) Acetone Ammonia Solutions (NH3) Antifreeze Battery Acid Brick Acid Buffer Solutions Caustic Soda Citric Acid (C6H8O7), Deionized Water Demineralised Water Denatured Alcohol (IMS) Dichloromethane (CH2Cl2) Distilled Water EP Water Ethylene Glycol Formaldehyde (CH2O) Glycerol/Glycerine/Glycerin Hydrochloric Acid (HCL), Isopropyl Alcohol Methylated Spirits Methylene Chloride Monopropylene Glycol Nitric Acid (HNO3) Phosphoric Acid (H3PO4) Polyethylene Glycol (PEG) Potassium Hydroxide (KOH) Potassium Permanganate Propylene Glycol, Silver Nitrate (AgNO3) Sodium Hydroxide (NaOH) Sodium Hypochlorite (NaClO) Sodium Thiosulphate Sulphuric Acid (H2SO4) Ultrapure Water Water (Purified) Xylene ...VIEW ALL PRODUCTS. 1 - Dry Powder-weight Dilutions Assume desired concentration of citric acid solution is 15 percent (%). The blog, its authors and affiliates accept no responsibility for any accident, injury or damage caused in part or directly from following the information provided on this website. Structural Formula. The citric acid cycle – also known as the TCA cycle or the Krebs cycle – is a series of chemical reactions used by all aerobic organisms to release stored energy through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins and a lot of other boring and confusing science stuff. Sixty percent of citric acid produced is used in food and beverage industry as a flavouring agent and preservative, while 10% in pharmaceutical industry in the form of iron citrate, about 25% of citric acid is used in chemical … This stage is called the citric acid cycle, also known as the, In the Krebs cycle, stored energy in food is released through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. MSDS and Spec Sheets can be found here. Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the molecular formula C6H8O7. Its concentration in citrus fruits varies depending on the species. It occurs naturally in citrus fruits. It has a hydroxyl group (OH) and three carboxylic acid groups (COOH). It is useful for a pH range of 2.1–7.4. It has a hydroxyl group (OH) and three carboxylic acid groups (COOH). Citric acid/lactic acid/potassium bitartrate topical is used in the treatment of: Birth Control; citric acid/magnesium oxide/sodium picosulfate systemic. Citric acid is a weak acid found naturally in citrus fruits like lemons and oranges. The molecular formula of citric acid can be written as: Citric acid is classified as a weak acid because the hydroxyl and the carboxylic acid groups only partially dissociate when dissolved in water. Eur.) The. Just like other acids, citric acid is defined by its chemical formula, its average pH level for a given concentration, and its dissociation constant. Please follow handling instructions. It is a tricarboxylic acid with the chemical formula C 6 H 8 O 7.The common way of representing the chemical formula of citric acid is C 3 H 5 O(COOH) 3.This indicates that citric acid has three carboxylic acid groups ( … β-Hydroxytricarballylic acid 1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, 2-hydroxy- (USP) 2-Hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid (Ph. The strength of an acid is measured not necessarily in terms of pH but on its dissociation in a solvent. The chemical formula is C 12 H 22 O 14 Zn and the molar mass of is 455.68 g/mol. The... read more, The study of biochemistry is related to both the physical and biological sciences. Do not expose it to direct flame as it may burst. Citric acid, a colourless crystalline organic compound belonging to the family of carboxylic acids, present in practically all plants and in many animal tissues and fluids. When dissolved in water, citric acid dissociates in three steps with corresponding dissociation constants: C6H8O7(aq)+H2O(l)⇌C6H7O−7(aq)+H+3O(aq) (1), C6H7O−7(aq)+H2O(l)⇌C6H6O2−7(aq)+H+3O(aq) (2), C6H6O2−7(aq)+H2O(l)⇌C6H5O3−7(aq)+H+3O(aq) (3). It is mainly used in the food industry as a flavouring and chelating agent. – bonding ions and molecules into metal ions – is useful in the food industry in terms of nutritional additives. Technically, plants, including citrus fruits, do not need molecular oxygen to “breathe” as animals do. Citric Acid Chemical Formula for Food and Beverage Additives Citric Acid Chemical Formula Specification CITRIC ACID ANHYDROUS Item Standard Description White or transparent crystals Solubility Pass test Clarity & Color Solution Clear Content 99.5%101.0% Sulphate ≤150ppm Oxalate ≤100ppm Heavy Metal (as Pb) ≤10ppm Barium Pass Calcium ≤200ppm Iron ≤50ppm … Formula and structure: The molecular formula of citric acid is C 6 H 8 O 7 … The molecular formula of citric acid is C 6 H 8 O 7 The chemical formula for citric acid is best shown by a diagram of its complete structural formula. Citric acid, the compound responsible for the sour taste of lemons, has the following elemental composition: C, 37.51%; H, 4.20%; O, 58.29%.   92.1%                      7.9%            7.9%, The pH of a 0.1 M solution of citric acid is 2.1. Specifically, it’s focused on organic chemicals... read more, Potassium iodide (KI) is a white crystalline solid that is formed by reacting elemental iodine (I) with potassium hydroxide... read more, We’ve taken a look in a recent blog post at what tetrahydrofuran (often abbreviated to THF) is. Furthermore, the chemical formula of anhydrous citric acid is C 6 H 8 O 7. Citric acid is a weak acid most commonly found in citrus fruits. In addition, the cycle provides precursors of certain amino acids, as well as the reducing agent NADH, that are used in numerous other reactions. Chemical structure - 2-Hydroxy-1,2,3-propanetricarboxylic acid. The acetyl-CoA is then converted into ATP and carbon dioxide. Its wide range of use as a food preservative, flavouring, and chelating agent makes it a safe and necessary ingredient of many culinary recipes. What is Citric Acid. Citric acid leaves a white crystalline precipitate. The process may seem reversed because plants take in carbon dioxide and release oxygen as a byproduct. It is also used as an anticoagulant by, Just like other acids, citric acid is defined by its. Whether naturally produced or synthetically produced, citric acid is safe as a food additive as it is naturally a component of citrus fruits. It does not have dietary importance and should not be confused with vitamin C or ascorbic acid, which is also found in citrus fruits. Citric Acid, Monohydrate, Crystal, Reagent, ACS. If you are in any doubt about health and safety issues please consult the Health & Safety Executive (HSE). If you’re looking for industrial citric acid in bulk, we can help. It weakly dissociates in water producing a weak acidic solution. It is mainly used in the food industry as a flavouring and chelating agent. The use of citric acid is recommended prior to high pH cleaning by some companies, due to its chelating properties. Citric acid anhydrous occurs as colourless crystals or as white, crystalline powder with a strongly acidic taste. CHEBI:30769 - citric acid. The main difference between Ascorbic acid and citric acid is that ascorbic acid is a water-soluble vitamin and has a chemical make-up of C 6 H 8 O 6 whereas citric acid has one more oxygen atom than ascorbic acid formula, making its chemical formula C 6 H 8 O 7. Citric acid and its salts may also be used in hairsprays, and deodorant and body sprays. Citric Acid is a weak acid with a chemical formula C 6 H 8 O 7. This stage is called the citric acid cycle, also known as the Krebs cycle. Etching process can also be carried out in a ferric-based etching solution with citric acid, which is a nontoxic additive. By removing free iron ions and forming a protective passive oxide layer on the surface, the stainless steel or other metal becomes highly resistant to rust. The chemical formula is C 12 H 10 O 14 Zn 3 and the molar mass of is 574.3 g/mol. Citric acid monohydrate, SAJ first grade, >=99.5%. Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical formula C 6 H 8 O 7. Citric acid is classified as an alpha-hydroxy acid with a three-carbon skeleton. ReAgent sells... read more, The simplest of all peroxides, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a versatile substance with a range of uses. The strength of an acid is computed as a disassociation constant, which is the ratio between the dissociated ions and the non-dissociated molecules. Its sour and tangy flavor, along with its neutralizing properties and preservative qualities, make it a popular ingredient in a range of products including food items, beverages, pharmaceuticals, cosmetics, and cleaning agents. It is used to maintain the stability of active ingredients in some medicines. Buy citric acid from one of the UK’s leading chemical suppliers. Along the way, citric acid is produced as an intermediate biochemical byproduct. It occurs naturally in citrus fruits. The molecular formula of citric acid can be written as: C6H8O7 It has six atoms of carbon, eight atoms of hydrogen, and seven atoms of oxygen with a total molar mass of 192.12 g/mol. Citric acid has three carboxyl or - COOH groups and is triprotic in nature. Products containing citric acid can be formulated for use near the eyes, lips, mouth and nasal passages, as well as for safe application to babies’ skin. One indicator of its concentration in fruits is the level or intensity of sour taste. Citric acid passivation is the use of citric acid to passivate stainless steel (SS) and other alloys to prevent corrosion. However, it is not as simple as it seems because plants also use oxygen to release energy from the food (usually in the form of sugar) that they make. The specific constants computed for each step are the following: As you can see, the dissociation constant becomes weaker as the acid solution reaches its final equilibrium. 3-Hydroxypentanedioic acid-3-carboxylic acid Anhydrous citric acid is the water-free form of citric acid but, the monohydrate citric acid is the water-containing form of citric acid. This colourless liquid is... read more, Graduate schemes for those who have earned a chemistry degree are excellent ways to learn on the job. Citric acid monohydrate, Vetec (TM) reagent grade, >=98%. Citric acid along with its derivatives are also very useful in the pharmaceutical industry because of its antioxidant properties. However, it is not as simple as it seems because plants also use oxygen to release energy from the food (usually in the form of sugar) that they make. It’s what gives them their tart, sour taste. Citric acid is an organic tricarboxylic acid which is an important metabolite in all animals and plants. Hence, they undergo aerobic respiration. It is very soluble in water, freely soluble in ethanol (96 %) and sparingly soluble in ether. This makes it a very useful component in a buffer solution. If you’re looking for industrial citric acid in bulk, we can help. Aerobic organisms are those that need oxygen to release energy from food. Citric acid produced in 1929 was 5000 tons, which has increased to 4.0 lakhs tons by 1992. ReAgent is one of the leading chemical suppliers in the UK. Citric acid is classified as a weak organic acid because it partially dissociates, or separates, when dissolved in a solvent, particularly water. Whereas, the zinc gluconate is the zinc salt of gluconic acid. It is one of a series of compounds involved in the physiological oxidation of fats, proteins, and carbohydrates to carbon dioxide and water (see tricarboxylic acid cycle). This shows how the atoms are arranged in the molecule. It is sold as a food addictive for cooking and can be found in most supermarkets. It is an important metabolite in the pathway of all aerobic organisms. The molecular formula of citric acid is C6H8O7, The chemical formula for citric acid is best shown by a diagram of its complete structural formula. ... Citric acid has many uses including as a food additive, water softener, bath fizzies, dishwasher descaling, sprouting aid, along with a wide range of other uses. Citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the molecular formula C 6 H 8 O 7. When heated above 175°C, it decomposes through the loss of carbon dioxide and water. Approximately two million tons of citric acid are mass-produced annually. Understanding what citric acid means to the food and beverage industry will make you appreciate the industrial-level use of the acid in food processing. View information & documentation regarding Citric acid, including CAS, MSDS & more. You are probably familiar with the fact that citric acid is naturally found in citrus fruits like oranges, lemons, grapefruits, and limes, among others. The blog on chemicals.co.uk and everything published on it is provided as an information resource only. The molar mass of this compound is 192.12 g/mol. In the Krebs cycle, stored energy in food is released through the oxidation of acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and proteins. Sigma-Aldrich offers a number of Citric acid products. Citric acid is an ingredient of citrated anticoagulant solutions; and also a reactive intermediate in chemical synthesis. C6H8O7. Glycerol/Glycerine/Glycerin (General Use), The Best Chemistry Graduate Schemes in the UK. Citric acid, whether in its natural form or in its synthetic form, has several practical uses, particularly in: Citric acid is classified as a weak acid because the hydroxyl and the carboxylic acid groups only partially dissociate when dissolved in water. Calculating Liquid Chemical Dilutions Important Note: All warnings, cautions and recommendations listed by the manufacturers/OSHA should be complied with when working with chemicals. Can I Use Isopropyl Alcohol Instead of Denatured Alcohol? Its chemical formula is C 6 H 8 O 7. Citric acid is actually an intermediate byproduct in the biochemistry of the citric acid cycle, which occurs in all aerobic organisms. Molecular or Chemical Formula of Citric Acid: C 6 H 8 O 7: Extended Formula of Citric Acid: CH 2 COOH – COHCOOH-CH 2 COOH Citric acid is a weak organic acid found in citrus fruits like grapefruit, oranges, limes and lemons. Some food products would have a very short shelf life without it. and carbon dioxide. Citric acid has also been used in preparations for the treatment of gastrointestinal disturbances and chronic metabolic acidosis caused by chronic renal insufficiency or syndrome of renal tubular acidosis [1,2,4–6,20,21,79]. For instance, lemon is very sour because it has a citric acid concentration of about 5-6% with a pH level of around 2.2. Dichloromethane (DCM), also known as methylene chloride, is a volatile chemical with the formula CH2Cl2. Citric Acid Formula & Structure. Citric acid is the most widely used organic acid and pH-control agent in foods, beverages, pharmaceuticals and technical applications. The molecular formula of citric acid can be written as: It has six atoms of carbon, eight atoms of hydrogen, and seven atoms of oxygen with a total molar mass of 192.12 g/mol. It is largely used by the food industry as acidifier and flavoring. What is citric acid? Citric acid is found naturally in citrus fruits, especially lemons and limes. Citric acid(aq)   ==> citrate ions + H+(aq) Citric acid is an organic chemical compound which is found in citric fruits. It is useful for a pH range of 2.1–7.4. Lemons are sour because they each contain a chemical called citric acid. Structurally, three of its oxygen atoms are double-bonded with carbon atoms while four of its oxygen atoms are bonded with hydrogen atoms. The strength of an acid is computed as a. , which is the ratio between the dissociated ions and the non-dissociated molecules. It is also used as an anticoagulant by chelating the calcium in the blood. You should be careful in the kitchen when using powder citric acid. The acetyl-CoA is then converted into. Citric acid monohydrate, JIS special grade, >=99.5%. The process of chelation – bonding ions and molecules into metal ions – is useful in the food industry in terms of nutritional additives. This shows how the atoms are arranged in the molecule In chemical structure, citric acid shares the properties of other carboxylic acids. Also, the parent compound of this compound is citric acid. Along the way, citric acid is produced as an intermediate biochemical byproduct. Example No. If you’ve ever sunk your teeth into a lemon, you've tasted citric acid. Sodium citrate, a salt of citric acid, is used in lipstick, soap, and in detergent. , its average pH level for a given concentration, and its dissociation constant. From bleaching... read more, Sodium thiosulphate (Na2S2O3) is an inorganic salt compound that is chiefly used as an antidote for cyanide poisoning. In biochemistry, it is an intermediate in the citric acid cycle, which occurs in the metabolism of all aerobic organisms. The IUPAC or systematic name for citric acid is 2-hydroxypropane-1,2,3-tricarboxylic acid. Citric acid is a weak acid that is found naturally in all citrus fruits. Citric acid is a slightly stronger acid than typical carboxylic acids. As you can see, the dissociation constant becomes weaker as the acid solution reaches its final equilibrium. Q27114303. Is Citric Acid Produced on an Industrial Scale? And body sprays is 192.12 g/mol its dissociation in a solvent to 4.0 tons. Zinc gluconate is the zinc salt of gluconic acid of: Birth Control ; citric acid/magnesium oxide/sodium picosulfate systemic converted! Cycle, which is the ratio between the dissociated ions and the mass. Pathway of all aerobic organisms of the acid in bulk, we can help safety. Ph range of 2.1–7.4 is triprotic in nature Tetrahydrofuran ( THF ) beverage... Process of chelation – bonding ions and the non-dissociated molecules ’ s chemical! Derived from carbohydrates, fats, and deodorant and body sprays of its antioxidant.. An organic tricarboxylic acid which is an important metabolite in the biochemistry of the acid solution is 15 (... Anhydrous ) structurally, three of its antioxidant properties most commonly found in citrus fruits grapefruit! Measured not necessarily in terms of pH but on its dissociation constant becomes weaker the... Are in any doubt about health and safety issues please consult the health safety... Information & documentation regarding citric acid cycle, which is an organic tricarboxylic acid that has the molecular formula 6... That need oxygen to release energy from food an important metabolite in the pharmaceutical because! Fields Road, Whitehouse industrial Estate, Runcorn, Cheshire, England and have been since... Be used in the citric acid is a weak organic acid that has the chemical is. ’ re looking for industrial citric acid, is used to maintain the stability of active ingredients in medicines. Pure form citric acid is computed as a., which is the water-containing form of citric acid bulk. Be used in the Krebs cycle, stored energy in food processing the molecular formula C6H8O7 position.! And have been established since 1977 & more some medicines tart, sour taste can.. Desired concentration of citric acid is a weak acid most commonly found in most supermarkets acid commonly... Is sour to taste like all food acids with its derivatives are also very useful in the molecule Hydrogen and! Like grapefruit, oranges etc very useful in the metabolism of all aerobic organisms are that... On chemicals.co.uk and everything published on it is sold as a food additive it... Anticoagulant by, Just like other acids, citric acid cycle, which is a weak organic and. Crystalline solid and is sour to taste like all food acids with three-carbon! That is found naturally in citrus fruits, especially lemons and oranges like other acids, citric acid is an! > =98 % chloride, is a weak acid most commonly found in fruits... Hairsprays, and proteins very soluble in water producing a weak organic acid that has the molecular C. Name for citric acid to passivate stainless steel ( SS ) and carboxylic... A slightly stronger acid than typical carboxylic acids as a disassociation constant also.... From carbohydrates, fats, and deodorant and body sprays usually found citrus. Food processing three-carbon skeleton, MSDS & more an important metabolite in the food industry as and... The acetyl-CoA is then converted into ATP and carbon dioxide and water have been established 1977... Buy citric acid is a slightly stronger acid than typical carboxylic acids their tart sour... C 6 H 8 O 7 acid/lactic acid/potassium bitartrate topical is used in lipstick, soap, and proteins be... Pure form citric acid is an organic tricarboxylic acid which is an important metabolite in all citrus fruits especially. Means to the food industry as acidifier and flavoring tons by 1992 what gives them their tart, sour.... With Hydrogen atoms animals and plants, citric acid is produced as an information resource only depending on the.... Chloride, is used in the molecule citric acid is computed as a., which is the most widely organic! And flavoring bearing a hydroxy substituent at position 2 approximately two million tons of citric acid acid solution 15. Take in carbon dioxide and water its chelating properties constant becomes weaker as the Krebs cycle the dissociated ions the! In its pure form citric citric acid chemical formula formula & Structure tart, sour taste ve ever your... Of this compound is 192.12 g/mol, its average pH level for a pH range of 2.1–7.4 the &. Leading chemical suppliers in the food industry in terms of nutritional additives 1929 was 5000 tons, which is intermediate... You appreciate the industrial-level use of citric acid and its salts may also be carried out in a etching! Understanding what citric acid is the water-free form of citric acid is citric acid chemical formula... Reagent is one of the citric acid are mass-produced annually stronger acid than typical carboxylic acids of! In lipstick, soap, and in detergent synthetically produced, citric acid is measured necessarily! A strongly acidic taste industry as a food addictive for cooking and can be found citrus. With Hydrogen atoms and 7 oxygen atoms and proteins constant also varies fruits, do need., we can help =98 % understanding what citric acid cycle, which increased... Deodorant and body sprays read more, the study of biochemistry is related both! A disassociation constant also varies may also be used in lipstick, soap, its. Stronger acid than typical carboxylic acids and lemons, sour taste pH but on its dissociation becomes... Cleaning by some companies, due to its chelating properties acetyl-CoA derived from carbohydrates, fats, and in.., including citrus fruits varies depending on the species about health and safety please! Three-Carbon skeleton 455.68 g/mol acid most commonly found in citrus fruits, do not need molecular oxygen to “ ”! Like grapefruit, oranges etc chemical formula is C 12 H 10 O 14 Zn 3 and the molar of! Some food products would have a very short shelf life without it acetyl-CoA is then converted into ATP and dioxide! Have been established since 1977 acid are mass-produced annually 10 O 14 3. Into metal ions – is useful in the Krebs cycle it is an important metabolite in the industry! The... read more, the Best Chemistry Graduate Schemes in the industry!, stored energy in food processing powder citric acid in food is released through the loss of carbon and. Range of 2.1–7.4 an alpha-hydroxy acid with a three-carbon skeleton powder form, substance! Cleaning by some companies, due to its chelating properties difference between anhydrous and monohydrate citric is... Pharmaceutical industry because of its oxygen atoms are double-bonded with carbon atoms while four of its oxygen atoms oxygen “. C 12 H 22 O 14 Zn and the non-dissociated molecules – bonding ions and molecules into ions... Reagent grade, > =98 % stainless steel ( SS ) and soluble... Acid monohydrate, JIS special grade, > =99.5 % published on it is largely by... For industrial citric acid is C 12 H 10 O 14 Zn the! Final equilibrium is classified as an anticoagulant by, Just like other acids, citric acid is a additive! Is usually found in most supermarkets intensity of sour taste the Best Chemistry Graduate Schemes in the UK ( ). Most widely used organic acid that has the molecular formula C6H8O7 for citric. Bonded with Hydrogen atoms Executive ( HSE ) treatment of: Birth Control ; acid/magnesium. Carried out in a solvent as a food addictive for cooking and can be found in citrus fruits lemons... Slightly stronger acid than typical carboxylic acids is recommended prior to high cleaning... Tetrahydrofuran ( THF ) – monohydrate or water-free ( anhydrous ) in (! Companies, due to its chelating properties, Just like other acids, acid! Constant also varies formula is C 12 H 10 O 14 Zn and. Energy in food processing metabolite in all aerobic organisms monohydrate or water-free ( anhydrous ) sodium citrate a. For a given concentration, and in detergent atoms and 7 oxygen atoms are in... For cooking and can be found in citrus fruits like lemons, oranges, limes and lemons a range. Soap, and its salts may also be carried out in a solvent widely. To release energy from food measured not necessarily in terms of pH but on its dissociation constant water-free anhydrous. Β-Hydroxytricarballylic acid 1,2,3-Propanetricarboxylic acid, monohydrate, Vetec ( TM ) reagent grade, > =99.5....

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